What triggers celiac disease are various. Celiac disease is an illness which attacks the immune system of a body and it causes the damage in small intestines. The surface of the small intestines changes because of the consumption of foods that contain gluten. The effect is, the body hardly absorbs the nutrition from foods, especially folate, iron, fats, and calcium.
What Causes Celiac Disease?
The normal condition of system immune will produce antibody in order to protect the body from the attack of microorganism. But in the case of celiac disease, when the patient consumes gluten, it will stimulate the immune system to produce the antibody which attacks the gluten. It is because the immune system wrongly recognizes gluten as the threat for the body.
In the surface of small intestines, there are tissues just like hairs, which are called villi. The antibody produced is able to damage the wall of small intestines where the villi automatically stick. When the antibody attacks, it will cause an inflammation in the small intestines, then damage the villi. Villi has the function to absorb the nutrition from the foods consumed. When the villi is damaged, then the process of absorbing the nutrition is not maximized. This kind of condition makes the person lack nutrition or usually called as malnutrition.
The cause why antibody attacks the tissues or organ of the body is not found yet. There are just some factors which trigger celiac disease, mentioned by some medical experts. Such as genetic factors, infection in the digestion system such as infection of rotavirus. Specific illness such as Diabetes type 1, down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and the sjogren syndrome is also able to be the answer of what causes coeliac disease.
How Celiac Disease is diagnosed?
In order to diagnose celiac disease, the doctor will collect the data and information from the patient by asking the history of the health of the patient and family, and also the symptoms that the patient feels. To make sure the diagnose, the doctor will do some medical checking, such as:
- Blood test in order to know the level of the antibody which is produced in giving a response to gluten.
- Biopsy which is done through the endoscope by insertion of a device through the mouth into the small intestines to take a sample from the intestinal tissue.
- Capsule endoscope by swallowing something like a capsule which is equipped with a wireless camera in order to get the real picture of small intestines.
- Skin biopsy is done if the patient experience dermatitis herpetiformis. Dermatitis herpetiformis is one of the symptoms of celiac disease where the patient has an itchy rash in their skins.
- Dexa scan is done if the patient has the problem with bone density.
Patient with celiac disease needs to do the program of the gluten-free diet. They need to avoid any kinds of foods which contain gluten. What celiac disease can eat are cheese, butter, fish, potatoes, meats, fruits, vegetables, and any kinds of foods which do not contain gluten. Those foods are not included in what triggers celiac disease.